Report turkishmade libyastanleygizmodo – The peculiarities of Turkmenistan and Libya are explained. This article is about how to make good use of these countries’ unique features.
The peculiarities of Turkmenistan are explained
There are a number of factors that characterize the repressive authoritarian state of Turkmenistan. These include regional patronage networks, clans, political dissent, and a lack of effective institutions to combat corruption. In particular, discrimination against religious, ethnic, and minority groups is often pervasive.
Turkmenistan is a nation of mostly ethnic Turkmen, who overwhelmingly hold top leadership positions. This has made it difficult for members of minority groups to pursue the independent political activity.
Although the government has taken measures to increase the level of human rights protection in the country, some fundamental rights are still denied. For example, there are no domestic violence laws in place. Additionally, there are no laws that protect LGBT+ people from discrimination.
The country has made significant progress in the sphere of economic rights. However, there is much room for improvement. Its hydrocarbons and petroleum product sales have declined in recent years.
Turkmenistan’s oil production
Turkmenistan’s oil production has fallen in recent years. Meanwhile, its gas production is expanding. Some experts believe that the country has the potential to benefit from its natural gas production for decades to come. Developing the gas industry involves considering various non-market and market factors.
There is also a lack of adequate financial resources. The government plans to develop large-scale gas-chemical complexes that can produce liquefied gas and synthetic detergents.
Turkmenistan’s gas sector is subject to the impact of many non-market and market factors. For example, in the past, the country faced disruptions in production due to outdated technology.
In addition, there is insufficient information on the country’s social policies. Moreover, there are no national laws on labor disputes.
Discrimination against women is a persistent problem. Traditional social and religious norms limit their economic opportunities. Women must develop attitudes and awareness to achieve gender equality.
As of November 2018, Turkmenistan’s president affirmed the country’s commitment to gender equality. At the United Nations General Assembly, he spoke about the need for overcoming gender stereotypes.
Turkmenistan has also been a long-time supporter of the United Nations and its regional agencies. They provide education, trade, health, and environmental protection. Currently, the country is carrying out a program with UNDP.
Exactly what is Libya’s most peculiar feature?
Libya is a country located in North Africa. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Algeria to the west, Niger to the south, and Chad to the southeast. The country has the largest oil reserves on the continent. However, it is weakly diversified and is largely dependent on oil revenues for economic growth. In addition, the southern border is open to trafficking in weapons, drugs, and people.
The country is divided into three historical regions: Cyrenaica, Fezzan, and Tripolitania. Cyrenaica, a mountainous coastal littoral region, has historically been a grazing ground for powerful tribes. Although the Berber language is still spoken in some southern oases, the majority of the population speaks modern standard Arabic.
Sense of National Identity
Most Libyans hold a strong sense of national identity. A 2015 survey conducted by the University of Benghazi Research Center revealed that Islam was the primary source of shared identity. This identity was augmented by regional identities. Regional identities have been increasingly important as a result of the country’s instability.
After the revolution in February 2011, the General National Congress (GNC) seized legislative power in Tripoli, but this was only the beginning of a political division that greatly increased the importance of local identities. Municipal councils continue to provide basic services to citizens, but many eastern regions were militarized.
Ansar al-Sharia and the Muslim Brotherhood occupied Tripoli in November 2013. Since then, civilian infrastructure has been attacked and power outages have lasted for hours. There have been serious due process violations. Civil and military courts operate at a reduced capacity.
UNDP’s Human Development Index
According to the UNDP’s Human Development Index, Libya ranks 105th among 144 countries. Women are more likely to be unemployed and paid less than men. The government is based in Tripoli and the country’s economy is heavily reliant on oil. Oil revenues have encouraged the state to expand its workforce.
The World Bank’s Libya Economic Monitor identifies a number of risks associated with economic distortion and abuse. In addition, international sponsors of competing actors continue shipping war materials to the country in breach of the U.N.’s 2011 arms embargo.
There has been widespread criticism of the impartiality of Libyan courts. Lawyers for Justice Libya have repeatedly questioned the independence of domestic courts in a highly militarized environment.