ENT Diseases

The Impact of ENT Diseases on Social life?

Ear, Nose and Throat Department (Otorhinolaryngology) (ENT) is a department for diseases related to the outer ear, middle ear, eardrum, nose, throat, vocal cords, the upper part of the esophagus (pharynx), and facial nerves and pathologies between the inner ear and the brain in all age groups. It is the field of medicine that deals with diagnosis and treatment.
Nasal cavity and sinus problems, allergies, adenoids, tonsils, smell problems, breathing difficulties through the nose, hearing and balance disorders originating from the ear and/or inner ear, infections, vocal cords, and larynx diseases, speech and voice problems. Part of the esophagus, problems of the upper part of the esophagus, swallowing and breathing problems, oncological diseases of the region are evaluated in the ENT specialty.

With the arrival of summer, the increase in temperatures, the beginning of the swimming season in the pool and the sea, and the increase in leisure time and holidays, a series of specific pathologies related to the ear, nose, and throat occur, which are more frequent at this time of year than the typical winter pictures.

ENT diseases and their impact

Here are some ENT diseases that affect your health and social life:

Diffuse Otitis Externa

It is a bacterial infection of the skin of the outer ear. It is produced by entering contaminated water, especially in ears predisposed by their shape to accumulate moisture for a few hours after bathing. It is a bacterial infection of the skin of the outer ear. It is produced by entering contaminated water, especially in ears predisposed by their shape to accumulate moisture for a few hours after bathing. It is more common after swimming in pools than in the sea. It causes intense pain, which usually awakens the patient at night and intensifies when manipulating the cartilage of the ear. It occurs at any age but is typical of children from 2 to 10 years old.

The diagnosis is by the symptoms and the presence of edema and effusion in the external auditory canal accompanied by the tragus sign (intense pain when moving the tragal cartilage of the ear). Treatment consists of oral analgesics associated with antibiotic drops that must be instilled into the external auditory canal and usually remits within 48 hours once it is established.

It should be prevented by using bath plugs in polluted waters and swimming pools, avoiding the use of swabs that can injure and contain the proper functioning of the ear’s self-cleaning system, and drying both ears well with a towel or a dryer at warm temperature after the bathrooms. In case of frequent infections, your otolaryngologist will recommend a few drops with an acidifier or antibiotic after bathing to prevent disease.

Exostosis of the External Auditory Canal

Exostosis consists of the pathological growth of the bone’s outermost layers that form the external auditory canal into the cavity, narrowing it and predisposing it to repeated infections, accumulation of wax and skin, and in more severe cases, hearing loss due to closure. Of the sound conduction system. It is typical of exposure to cold waters, and that is why it has been called the swimmer’s, surfer’s, or diver’s ear. It is believed to be a defensive response to cold after repeated baths and occurs slowly, progressively being indolent until it is in an advanced state.

For its prevention, it is recommended that all people who take frequent baths, especially in the sea and in cold waters, wear earplugs specially designed to prevent water entry. In the case of divers (we remember that plugs are prohibited for diving with air bottles), it is recommended to use neoprene caps that heat the water retained inside. Once an advanced picture with complications such as frequent infections or hearing loss has been established, root canal enlargement surgery is the only solution. We recommend that in case of ear infections or hearing loss due to tamponade, see an otolaryngologist as soon as possible who will recommend the appropriate measures for the prevention or treatment of exostosis.

Exposure to loud noises

Summer is the time of festivals, concerts, popular festivals, and an increase in nightlife with the consequent exposure to high-intensity noise. Exposure to sound can lead to hearing loss, constant noise in the ear (tinnitus), and impaired ability to understand language.

The best way to prevent hearing impairment is to avoid noise exposure. If one is exposed, earplugs designed to reduce sound pressure intensity reaching our inner ear are recommended. These plugs allow you to carry on a conversation and enjoy music while protecting us from injury to the delicate hair cells of the inner ear.

Diving accidents

Diving with a compressed air bottle allows you to enjoy wildlife in its natural environment. It teaches you to appreciate nature and is a sport of great beauty. However, it is still a risky sport where the human being leaves his natural environment and is exposed to an aquatic environment where high pressures are reached depending on the depth.

The minor diving accidents in otorhinolaryngology are rhinitis, sinusitis, and otitis due to pressure changes and dental pain, motion sickness from boat trips, and facial contact with algae jellyfish stinging marine animals.

Serious accidents are due to rapid decompression and occur when ascending too fast after a long or deep dive and can have severe consequences at the level of the auditory system, the nervous system, the lungs, and by air embolism to sensitive areas of the body.

To avoid diving accidents, we give three recommendations:

If you haven’t been diving in a while, take a new medical examination and go to a certified diving center to take a refresher course and remember the basic safety rules.
Always equip yourself with the appropriate equipment, check your equipment or go to a dive center where they will supply you with revised equipment.
Always dive with instructors or companions more experienced than you, making an excellent previous dive plan where the depth and time of decompression stops are determined.

Solar exposition

Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun has immediate (sunburn) and late effects (aging of the skin, sun spots, and predisposition to skin carcinomas and melanomas). To defend ourselves from the harmful impact of the sun, our skin cells stimulate the production of melanin, a pigment that gives our skin a coppery color and defends us from the sun. When production is excessive due to repeated exposures, the skin can stimulate the defensive system to become uncontrolled and altered, producing accelerated cell replication that, in certain cases, can lead to a malignant tumor. Remember that skin cancer is the most common of all malignant tumors in both men and women. Children are especially defenseless against sunburn.

To avoid this, it is best to avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, especially in the central hours of the day, frequently use a high sun protection cream (SPF 50 or more), go to the beach or pool with light clothing, and hats. That covers the sun and wears sunglasses that protect the delicate skin of the eyelids. In case of sunburn, do not hesitate to consult your doctor. Whenever a skin lesion appears that bleeds, itches, or produces any symptoms, especially if it is greater than 5 mm, irregular, or bleeding, urgently go to your doctor to be evaluated.

Sudden deafness

Sudden deafness is hearing loss due to deterioration of the inner ear that sets in within fewer than 72 hours (usually a few minutes or hours) with no other history of disease in the affected ear. It can be accompanied by a constant noise in the ear (tinnitus) or a feeling of vertigo or imbalance. 95% affect only one ear.

Without the scientific community has found a causal relationship. Statistically, we know that up to 70% of sudden deafness occurs in summer and autumn.

In the event of sudden hearing loss, it is recommended that you see your primary care physician immediately, as the less time that elapses between the appearance of the start of treatment, the more likely it is to regain hearing.

Reactivation of nasolabial herpes

The so-called cold sore is a reactivation of a herpetic infection that was had in the past. It manifests as an itchy, painful lesion with vesicles in the perioral region, which becomes a lesion scab that ends up healing on its own in the course of a few days. Among many other factors, exposure to UVA rays is a precipitating factor for herpetic reactivation. Therefore, in the summer months, you should resort to intense sun protection in the facial area. In reactivation, exhaustive hand hygiene to avoid contagion is mandatory and avoid direct contact with other people affected by this type of herpetic lesions.

Sexually transmitted diseases

There is a statistical increase in sexually transmitted diseases in the summer months, so let us remember the protection and safety measures in sexual practices. Mandatory use of barrier contraceptive methods such as condoms and consult a specialist in case of any injury to the mouth, pharynx, or genital areas. For some years now, vaccination against the human papillomavirus has been recommended in adolescents (both boys and girls) before the start of sexual intercourse.

Epistaxis

Nosebleeds increase in frequency in summer due to increased temperatures and atmospheric pressure.

Adequate control of blood pressure, avoiding physical efforts in hot hours, and using moisturizing and protective nasal ointments in predisposed people can prevent the appearance of nosebleeds, which, although they are not serious, can be distressing and annoying due to the tendency to repetition.

Catarrhal rhinitis, sinusitis, and pharyngitis due to exposure to air conditioning

Prolonged exposure to air conditioning produces cooling and dryness of the nasal, sinus, and pharyngeal mucosa, predisposing to the appearance of acute pharyngitis, catarrhal, or sinus symptoms.

Avoid prolonged exposure to air conditioners, with breaks going outside or turning off the conditioning equipment, make correct hydration by drinking water and fruit juices rich in vitamin C and air conditioning at a not too low temperature can prevent inflammation of the mucous membranes of the airway avoiding the dreaded summer colds.

Conclusion

ENT diseases are common pathologies in daily clinical practice; their spectrum is wide, from simple conditions that the general practitioner can treat to other very complex ones requiring a priority referral to the specialist; Likewise, it occurs in all ages and conditions life.

Scientific advances have made it possible to explore new alternatives in the field of medicine focused on giving a genetic approach to pathologies; this has allowed the doctor to have a great advantage over the disease since it sometimes allows predicting the risk of developing a certain pathology, knowing the possible outcome and having different molecular targets when choosing the specific treatment.

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